Research chemicals are chemical substances used by scientists for medical and scientific research purposes. One characteristic of a research chemical is that it is for laboratory research use only; a research chemical is not intended for human or veterinary use. This distinction is required on the labels of research chemicals and is what exempts them from regulation.
Research chemicals are fundamental in the development of novel pharmacotherapies. The common medical laboratory uses include in vivo and animal testing to determine therapeutic value, toxicology testing by contract research organizations to determine drug safety and analysis by drug test and forensic toxicology labs for the purposes of evaluating human exposure.
Many pharmacologically active chemicals are sold online under the guise of “research chemicals,” when in reality they are untested designer drugs that are being sold for recreational use despite the compounds’ transitional or unclear legal status.
The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications to be administered to patients (or self-administered), with the aim to cure them, vaccinate them, or alleviate symptoms. Pharmaceutical companies may deal in generic or brand medications and medical devices.
They are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that govern the patenting, testing, safety, efficacy using drug testing and marketing of drugs. The global pharmaceuticals market produced treatments worth $1,228.45 billion in 2020 and showed a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.8%.Research chemicals
Research agrochemicals are created and evaluated to select effective substances for use in commercial off-the-shelf end-user products. Many research agrochemicals are never publicly marketed. Agricultural research chemicals often use sequential code names.
This is a list of prices of chemical elements. Listed here are mainly average market prices for bulk trade of commodities. Data on elements’ abundance in Earth’s crust is added for comparison. Research chemicals
As of 2020, the most expensive non-synthetic element by both mass and volume is rhodium. It is followed by caesium, iridium and palladium by mass and iridium, gold and platinum by volume. Of those elements, rhodium, caesium and gold have only one stable isotope (133
Rh and 197
Au respectively), iridium has two (191
Ir & 193
Ir) whereas palladium and platinum both have several. Carbon in the form of diamond can be more expensive than rhodium.
Per-kilogram prices of some synthetic radioisotopes range to trillions of dollars. While the difficulty of obtaining macroscopic samples of synthetic elements in part explains their high value, there has been interest in converting base metals to gold (Chrysopoeia) since ancient times, but only deeper understanding of nuclear physics has allowed the actual production of a tiny amount of gold from other elements for research purposes as demonstrated by Glenn Seaborg.
However, both this and other routes of synthesis of precious metals via nuclear reactions is orders of magnitude removed from economic viability.
Chlorine, sulfur and carbon (as coal) are cheapest by mass. Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine are cheapest by volume at atmospheric pressure.
When there is no public data on the element in its pure form, price of a compound is used, per mass of element contained. This implicitly puts the value of compounds’ other constituents, and the cost of extraction of the element, at zero. For elements whose radiological properties are important, individual isotopes and isomers are listed. The price listing for radioisotopes is not exhaustive.
An experimental drug is a medicinal product (a drug or vaccine) that has not yet received approval from governmental regulatory authorities for routine use in human or veterinary medicine.
A medicinal product may be approved for use in one disease or condition but still be considered experimental for other diseases or conditions. In 2018 the United States of America signed the legislation “Right to Try”, this allows individuals who fit into the criteria to try experimental drugs that are not yet deemed safe.
In the United States, the body responsible for approval is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which must grant the substance Investigational New Drug (IND) status before it can be tested in human clinical trials.
IND status requires the drug’s sponsor to submit an IND application that includes data from laboratory and animal testing for safety and efficacy. A drug that is made from a living organism or its products undergoes the same approval process but is called a biologics license application (BLA). Biological drugs include antibodies, interleukins, and vaccines.
In Canada, a Clinical Trial Application (CTA) must be filed with the Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB) of Health Canada before starting a clinical trial. If the clinical trial results show that therapeutic effect of the drug outweighs negative side effects then the sponsor can then to file a New Drug Submission.
Clinical trials in the European Union (EU) are regulated by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Beginning in 2019 all applications for clinical trials must use a centralize EU portal and database. All clinical trial results will available to the public with the summary written in layperson’s language.
Mid-1800s – 1945: From botanicals to the first synthetic drugs
The modern era of pharmaceutical industry began with local apothecaries that expanded from their traditional role of distributing botanical drugs such as morphine and quinine to wholesale manufacture in the mid-1800s, and from discoveries resulting from applied research.
Intentional drug discovery from plants began with the isolation between 1803 and 1805 of morphine – an analgesic and sleep-inducing agent – from opium by the German apothecary assistant Friedrich Sertürner, who named this compound after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus.
By the late 1880s, German dye manufacturers had perfected the purification of individual organic compounds from tar and other mineral sources and had also established rudimentary methods in organic chemical synthesis.
The development of synthetic chemical methods allowed scientists to systematically vary the structure of chemical substances, and growth in the emerging science of pharmacology expanded their ability to evaluate the biological effects of these structural changes.
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and amphetamine
By the 1890s, the profound effect of adrenal extracts on many different tissue types had been discovered, setting off a search both for the mechanism of chemical signalling and efforts to exploit these observations for the development of new drugs.
The blood pressure raising and vasoconstrictive effects of adrenal extracts were of particular interest to surgeons as hemostatic agents and as treatment for shock, and a number of companies developed products based on adrenal extracts containing varying purities of the active substance.
In 1897, John Abel of Johns Hopkins University identified the active principle as epinephrine, which he isolated in an impure state as the sulfate salt. Industrial chemist Jōkichi Takamine later developed a method for obtaining epinephrine in a pure state, and licensed the technology to Parke-Davis. Parke-Davis marketed epinephrine under the trade name Adrenalin.
Injected epinephrine proved to be especially efficacious for the acute treatment of asthma attacks, and an inhaled version was sold in the United States until 2011 (Primatene Mist). By 1929 epinephrine had been formulated into an inhaler for use in the treatment of nasal congestion.
While highly effective, the requirement for injection limited the use of epinephrine[clarification needed] and orally active derivatives were sought. A structurally similar compound, ephedrine, was identified by Japanese chemists in the Ma Huang plant and marketed by Eli Lilly as an oral treatment for asthma.
Following the work of Henry Dale and George Barger at Burroughs-Wellcome, academic chemist Gordon Alles synthesized amphetamine and tested it in asthma patients in 1929. The drug proved to have only modest anti-asthma effects but produced sensations of exhilaration and palpitations.
Amphetamine was developed by Smith, Kline and French as a nasal decongestant under the trade name Benzedrine Inhaler. Amphetamine was eventually developed for the treatment of narcolepsy, post-encephalitic parkinsonism, and mood elevation in depression and other psychiatric indications. It received approval as a New and Nonofficial Remedy from the American Medical Association for these uses in 1937, and remained in common use for depression until the development of tricyclic antidepressants in the 1960s.
Patents have been criticized in the developing world, as they are thought[who?] to reduce access to existing medicines. Reconciling patents and universal access to medicine would require an efficient international policy of price discrimination. Moreover, under the TRIPS agreement of the World Trade Organization, countries must allow pharmaceutical products to be patented. In 2001, the WTO adopted the Doha Declaration, which indicates that the TRIPS agreement should be read with the goals of public health in mind, and allows some methods for circumventing pharmaceutical monopolies: via compulsory licensing or parallel imports, even before patent expiration.
In March 2001, 40 multi-national pharmaceutical companies brought litigation against South Africa for its Medicines Act, which allowed the generic production of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for treating HIV, despite the fact that these drugs were on-patent.
HIV was and is an epidemic in South Africa, and ARVs at the time cost between US$10,000 and US$15,000 per patient per year. This was unaffordable for most South African citizens, and so the South African government committed to providing ARVs at prices closer to what people could afford.
To do so, they would need to ignore the patents on drugs and produce generics within the country (using a compulsory license), or import them from abroad. After international protest in favour of public health rights (including the collection of 250,000 signatures by Médecins Sans Frontières), the governments of several developed countries (including The Netherlands, Germany, France, and later the US) backed the South African government, and the case was dropped in April of that year.
In 2016, GlaxoSmithKline (the world’s sixth largest pharmaceutical company) announced that it would be dropping its patents in poor countries so as to allow independent companies to make and sell versions of its drugs in those areas, thereby widening the public access to them. GlaxoSmithKline published a list of 50 countries they would no longer hold patents in, affecting one billion people worldwide.