Cannabinoids Information. Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds found in the Cannabis sativa plant. Of over 480 different compounds present in the plant, only around 66 are termed cannabinoids.
Cannabinoids Information. The most well-known among these compounds is the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), which is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is another important component, which makes up about 40% of the plant resin extract.
Cannabinoids Information/ Classes of cannabinoids
The cannabinoids are separated into the following subclasses:
Other cannabinoids including cannabicyclol (CBL), cannabielsoin (CBE) and cannabitriol (CBT)
Cannabinoids (/kəˈnæbənɔɪdzˌ ˈkænəbənɔɪdz/) are several structural classes of compounds found in the cannabis plant primarily and most animal organisms (although insects lack such receptors) or as synthetic compounds. The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (delta-9-THC), the primary intoxicating compound in cannabis.
Cannabinoids Information. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major constituent of temperate Cannabis plants and a minor constituent in tropical varieties. At least 113 distinct phytocannabinoids have been isolated from cannabis, although only four (i.e., THCA, CBDA, CBCA and their common precursor CBGA) have been demonstrated to have a biogenetic origin.
It was reported in 2020 that phytocannabinoids can be found in other plants such as rhododendron, licorice and liverwort, and earlier in Echinacea.
Phytocannabinoids are multi-ring phenolic compounds structurally related to THC, but endocannabinoids are fatty acid derivatives. Nonclassical synthetic cannabinoids (cannabimimetics) include aminoalkylindoles, 1,5-diarylpyrazoles, quinolines, and arylsulfonamides as well as eicosanoids related to endocannabinoids.
Cannabinoids have drawn increasing public attention with expanding legalization and accessibility. Cannabinoids are a group of compounds that are biologically and structurally similar to the chemical compounds of Cannabis sativa.46 There are three classes of cannabinoids: plant-derived cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), and synthetic cannabinoids. Cannabinoids Information
Phytocannabinoids are plant-derived cannabinoids that are historically derived from cannabis sativa.47 The most notable phytocannabinoids are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which can have psychotropic effects, and cannabidiols (CBD), which are mostly non-psychotropic.
Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipids that function as ligands for cannabinoid receptors.46 Synthetic cannabinoids are developed in laboratories and mimic phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids.
The effects of cannabinoids are mediated by cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. CB1 is responsible for the psychoactive effects through the release of various neurotransmitters,48 while CB2 is presumed to mediate immunomodulation and the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids.49 Generally, oral cannabinoids have been shown to target systemic symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, and pain, whereas topically applied cannabinoids often target localized pain and inflammation.50–54.
The pathogenesis of HS includes a complex relationship between pilosebaceous unit occlusion due to keratinocyte proliferation, sebaceous gland disruption, and an overlapping, autoinflammatory response.3,4,55,56 Cannabinoids have been shown to inhibit keratinocyte proliferation in vitro CBD, and other phytocannabinoids have also been shown to inhibit a number of inflammatory pathways, including the NF-κB pathway.57
Anandamide is a CB1 agonist that interacts with vanilloid receptors to transduce and regulate nociceptive signals (including pain and itch) to the peripheral nervous system.
Phytocannabinoids and cannabinoid agonists have demonstrated clinical improvements for patients with pain associated with chronic medical conditions.60–62 CB1 and CB2 agonists have been shown to reduce itch for patients with lichen simplex chronicus, uremic pruritus, atopic dermatitis (AD), and prurigo nodularis.63,64 In a study of acne patients, application of topical cannabis seed extract cream resulted in significant decreases in skin sebum and erythema.65 Cannabinoids may have an analgesic effect in HS due to inhibition of the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide, which is stored in sensory neurons and involved in the transmission of pain.66
Despite the growing interest in the therapeutic applications of cannabinoids, there remains a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials that evaluate their effects in dermatology. Cannabinoids Information
In a recent HS CAM survey, marijuana and topical CBD oil were both among the more commonly used CAM methods by respondents. Most users reported them as helpful, with 57% reporting marijuana as helpful and 45% reporting topical CBD oil as helpful. Systemic toxicity can occur as a result of overstimulation of the endocannabinoid system from exogenous cannabinoid use through ingestion or inhalation.
67 Notable side effects of cannabinoid systemic toxicity include tachycardia (acute), bradycardia (chronic), decreased systemic vascular resistance, nystagmus, conjunctival injection, decreased intraocular pressure, lethargy, decreased concentration, and generalized psychomotor impairment.
Differences between cannabinoids
The main way in which the cannabinoids are differentiated is based on their degree of psychoactivity.
For example, CBG, CBC and CBD are not known to be psycholgically active agents whereas THC, CBN and CBDL along with some other cannabinoids are known to have varying degrees of psychoactivity.
The most abundant of the cannabinoids is CBD, which is thought to have anti-anxiety effects, possibly counteracting the psychoactive effects of THC.
When THC is exposed to the air, it becomes oxidized and forms CBN which also interacts with THC to lessen its impact.
This is why cannabis that has been left out unused will has less potent effects when smoked, due to the increased CBN to THC ratio.
Cannabinoids Information. Nabiximols (brand name Sativex) is an aerosolized mist for oral administration containing a near 1:1 ratio of CBD and THC. Also included are minor cannabinoids and terpenoids, ethanol and propylene glycol excipients, and peppermint flavouring.
The drug, made by GW Pharmaceuticals, was first approved by Canadian authorities in 2005 to alleviate pain associated with multiple sclerosis, making it the first cannabis-based medicine. It is marketed by Bayer in Canada.
Sativex has been approved in 25 countries; clinical trials are underway in the United States to gain FDA approval. In 2007, it was approved for the treatment of cancer pain.In Phase III trials, the most common adverse effects were dizziness, drowsiness and disorientation; 12% of subjects stopped taking the drug because of the side effects.
Dronabinol (brand name Marinol) is a THC drug used to treat poor appetite, nausea, and sleep apnea. It is approved by the FDA for treating HIV/AIDS-induced anorexia and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
The CBD drug Epidiolex has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of two rare and severe forms of epilepsy, Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes.
Effects of cannabinoids
Cannabinoids exert their effects by interacting with specific cannabinoid receptors present on the surface of cells.
These receptors are found in different parts of the central nervous system and the two main types of cannabinoid receptors in the body are CB1 and CB2.
In 1992, a naturally occurring substance in the brain that binds to CB1 was discovered, called anandamide. This cannabinoid-like chemical and others that were later discovered are referred to as endocannabinoids.
The effects of cannabinoids depend on the brain area involved. Effects on the limbic system may alter memory, cognition and psychomotor performance; effects on the mesolimbic pathway may affect the reward and pleasure responses and pain perception may also be altered.
What to know about endocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system
The endocannabinoid system is an active and complex cell signalling network. It involves a combination of endocannabinoids, enzymes, and cannabinoid receptors that help regulate several functions in the human body.
The discovery of the ECS is relatively new. In the early 1990s, a chemist isolated the first endocannabinoid in the human brain. Since that time, researchers have been learning more about this system and the role it plays in bodily functions.
Endocannabinoids are similar to the cannabinoids present in the cannabis sativa (C. sativa) plant. However, the human body naturally produces endocannabinoids. The term “endo” refers to “within,” as in within the body.
In this article, we will define the endocannabinoid system, and examine its function and potential therapeutic uses.
Cannabinoid receptors are on the surface of cells throughout the body. Endocannabinoids attach or bind to the receptors, which sends a message to the ECS to kick-start a response.
The two primary cannabinoid receptors are present throughout the body:
CB1 is mainly present in the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord.
CB2 is mainly present in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and in immune cells.
Experts think a third cannabinoid receptor may also exist, but research is not conclusive.
Endocannabinoids may attach to either type of receptor, causing different results depending on the location of the receptor in the body.
For example, endocannabinoids may target CB1 receptors in a spinal nerve to relieve pain or bind to a CB2 receptor in an immune cell, which signals that the body is experiencing inflammation. Cannabinoids Information
What are the therapeutic uses of cannabinoids?
Research indicates that the ECS may contain multiple promising therapeutic targets. While the body can produce endocannabinoids, there are also many cannabinoids present in the C.sativa plant which are of medical interest.
Two of the most well-known cannabinoids include tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). They can also bind to cannabinoid receptors and produce similar effects to endocannabinoids. THC is the cannabinoid that causes the “high” that people may associate with cannabis, whereas CBD does not produce this sensation.
Studies are ongoing to determine the therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids. For example, a 2016 study investigated the effect of CBD on joint inflammation in rats. The study suggests that applying a topical gel containing CBD decreased pain and joint swelling in rats without side effects.
Additional research indicates that cannabinoids may be helpful in treating a variety of conditions such as:
pain in adults
abnormal muscle tightness associated with multiple sclerosis
nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy
Research continues on how inhibiting or stimulating the endocannabinoid system could have medical and health benefits.